Leptospirosis, a clinical update regarding a neglected infectious disease

  • Paulo Sergio Balbino Miguel Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, psbmiguel@gmail.com
  • Maria Alexandra de Carvalho Meireles Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, marimeirelles27@gmail.com
  • Randyston Brenno Feitosa Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, randystonfeitosa@icloud.com
  • Oswaldo Jesus Rodrigues da Motta Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, oswaldo.motta@ufv.br
  • Sandra de Oliveira Pereira Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, sandraecdufv@yahoo.com.br
  • Ademir Nunes Ribeiro Junior Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, junioranrj@gmail.com
  • Marcio Luiz Fortuna Esmeraldo Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, marciofortuna12@gmail.com
  • Stefania Salvador P. Montenegro Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, stefaniasalvadorpmontenegro@gmail.com
  • Luiz Alberto Santana Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, luizalbertosantana32@gmail.com

Abstract

Leptospirosis is one of the neglected infectious diseases locally widespread and extremely significant in tropical areas due to its great epidemic potential. It is a worldwide public health problem in view of the emergence and reemergence of the disease due to lack of sanitation and negligence, among other factors. In fact, leptospirosis infects more than 1 million people per year, resulting in almost 60,000 deaths. Human infection generally takes place after skin exposure to soil and/or water contaminated with urine of chronically infected mammals. The clinical presentations of the disease vary from a slight fever, goosebumps and flu-like symptoms to the acute forms of the disease. Understanding the main aspects of the disease is paramount due to the many unspecific signs and symptoms as well as frequently mistaken diagnosis. In this article, we discuss the epidemiological, immunopathogenic, clinical and prophylactic aspects of this condition with the purpose of clarifying an up to date panorama of the subject.

KEY WORDS: Leptospirosis; Leptospira; concepts; clinical update.

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Author Biographies

Paulo Sergio Balbino Miguel, Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, psbmiguel@gmail.com

1. Laboratory of Epidemiological and Computational Methods in Health, Department of Medicine and Nursing, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Viçosa, MG, Brazil.
2. Departament of Medicine, Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga (FADIP), Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Maria Alexandra de Carvalho Meireles, Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, marimeirelles27@gmail.com

School of Medicine, FADIP, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Randyston Brenno Feitosa, Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, randystonfeitosa@icloud.com

School of Medicine, FADIP, Viçosa, MG, Brazil

Oswaldo Jesus Rodrigues da Motta, Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, oswaldo.motta@ufv.br

1. Department of Medicine and Nursing,UFV, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.
2. Department of Public Health Sciences and Pediatrics, University of Turin, Italy

Sandra de Oliveira Pereira, Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, sandraecdufv@yahoo.com.br

Laboratory of Epidemiological and Computational Methods in Health, Department of Medicine and Nursing, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Ademir Nunes Ribeiro Junior, Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, junioranrj@gmail.com

Departament of Medicine, Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga (FADIP), Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Marcio Luiz Fortuna Esmeraldo, Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, marciofortuna12@gmail.com

Departament of Medicine, Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga (FADIP), Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Stefania Salvador P. Montenegro, Faculdade Dinâmica do Vale do Piranga - FADIP, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, stefaniasalvadorpmontenegro@gmail.com

School of Medicine, FADIP, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Luiz Alberto Santana, Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, luizalbertosantana32@gmail.com

Laboratory of Epidemiological and Computational Methods in Health, Department of Medicine and Nursing, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Published
11-01-2021
How to Cite
Sergio Balbino Miguel, P., Alexandra de Carvalho Meireles, M., Brenno Feitosa, R., Jesus Rodrigues da Motta, O., de Oliveira Pereira, S., Nunes Ribeiro Junior, A., Luiz Fortuna Esmeraldo, M., Salvador P. Montenegro, S., & Alberto Santana, L. (2021). Leptospirosis, a clinical update regarding a neglected infectious disease. Revista De Patologia Tropical / Journal of Tropical Pathology, 49(4), 229-242. https://doi.org/10.5216/rpt.v49i4.67332
Section
REVISÃO / REVIEW